YHVH Accepts Aaron’s Offering
Leviticus 9:1-24, "On the eighth day Moses called Aaron and his sons and the elders of Israel, and he said to Aaron, “Take for yourself a bull calf for a sin offering and a ram for a burnt offering, both without blemish, and offer them before YHWH. And say to the people of Israel, ‘Take a male goat for a sin offering, and a calf and a lamb, both a year old without blemish, for a burnt offering, and an ox and a ram for peace offerings, to sacrifice before YHWH, and a grain offering mixed with oil, for today YHWH will appear to you.’” And they brought what Moses commanded in front of the tent of meeting, and all the congregation drew near and stood before YHWH. And Moses said, “This is the thing that YHWH commanded you to do, that the glory of YHWH may appear to you.” Then Moses said to Aaron, “Draw near to the altar and offer your sin offering and your burnt offering and make atonement for yourself and for the people, and bring the offering of the people and make atonement for them, as YHWH has commanded.”
"So Aaron drew near to the altar and killed the calf of the sin offering, which was for himself. And the sons of Aaron presented the blood to him, and he dipped his finger in the blood and put it on the horns of the altar and poured out the blood at the base of the altar. But the fat and the kidneys and the long lobe of the liver from the sin offering he burned on the altar, as YHWH commanded Moses. The flesh and the skin he burned up with fire outside the camp. Then he killed the burnt offering, and Aaron’s sons handed him the blood, and he threw it against the sides of the altar. And they handed the burnt offering to him, piece by piece, and the head, and he burned them on the altar. And he washed the entrails and the legs and burned them with the burnt offering on the altar."
"Then he presented the people’s offering and took the goat of the sin offering that was for the people and killed it and offered it as a sin offering, like the first one. And he presented the burnt offering and offered it according to the rule. And he presented the grain offering, took a handful of it, and burned it on the altar, besides the burnt offering of the morning. Then he killed the ox and the ram, the sacrifice of peace offerings for the people. And Aaron’s sons handed him the blood, and he threw it against the sides of the altar. But the fat pieces of the ox and of the ram, the fat tail and that which covers the entrails and the kidneys and the long lobe of the liver-- they put the fat pieces on the breasts, and he burned the fat pieces on the altar, but the breasts and the right thigh Aaron waved for a wave offering before YHWH, as Moses commanded."
"Then Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them, and he came down from offering the sin offering and the burnt offering and the peace offerings. And Moses and Aaron went into the tent of meeting, and when they came out they blessed the people, and the glory of YHWH appeared to all the people. And fire came out from before YHWH and consumed the burnt offering and the pieces of fat on the altar, and when all the people saw it, they shouted and fell on their faces."
The Death of Nadab and Abihu
Leviticus 10:1-20, "Now Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, each took his censer and put fire in it and laid incense on it and offered unauthorized fire before YHWH, which he had not commanded them. And fire came out from before YHWH and consumed them, and they died before YHWH. Then Moses said to Aaron, “This is what YHWH has said: ‘Among those who are near me I will be sanctified, and before all the people I will be glorified.’” And Aaron held his peace."
"And Moses called Mishael and Elzaphan, the sons of Uzziel the uncle of Aaron, and said to them, “Come near; carry your brothers away from the front of the sanctuary and out of the camp.” So they came near and carried them in their coats out of the camp, as Moses had said. And Moses said to Aaron and to Eleazar and Ithamar his sons, “Do not let the hair of your heads hang loose, and do not tear your clothes, lest you die, and wrath come upon all the congregation; but let your brothers, the whole house of Israel, bewail the burning that YHWH has kindled. And do not go outside the entrance of the tent of meeting, lest you die, for the anointing oil of YHWH is upon you.” And they did according to the word of Moses."
"And YHWH spoke to Aaron, saying, “Drink no wine or strong drink, you or your sons with you, when you go into the tent of meeting, lest you die. It shall be a statute forever throughout your generations. You are to distinguish between the holy and the common, and between the unclean and the clean, and you are to teach the people of Israel all the statutes that YHWH has spoken to them by Moses.”
"Moses spoke to Aaron and to Eleazar and Ithamar, his surviving sons: “Take the grain offering that is left of YHWH’s food offerings, and eat it unleavened beside the altar, for it is most holy. You shall eat it in a holy place, because it is your due and your sons’ due, from YHWH’s food offerings, for so I am commanded. But the breast that is waved and the thigh that is contributed you shall eat in a clean place, you and your sons and your daughters with you, for they are given as your due and your sons’ due from the sacrifices of the peace offerings of the people of Israel. The thigh that is contributed and the breast that is waved they shall bring with the food offerings of the fat pieces to wave for a wave offering before YHWH, and it shall be yours and your sons’ with you as a due forever, as YHWH has commanded.”
"Now Moses diligently inquired about the goat of the sin offering, and behold, it was burned up! And he was angry with Eleazar and Ithamar, the surviving sons of Aaron, saying, "Why have you not eaten the sin offering in the place of the sanctuary, since it is a thing most holy and has been given to you that you may bear the iniquity of the congregation, to make atonement for them before YHWH? Behold, its blood was not brought into the inner part of the sanctuary. You certainly ought to have eaten it in the sanctuary, as I commanded.” And Aaron said to Moses, “Behold, today they have offered their sin offering and their burnt offering before YHWH, and yet such things as these have happened to me! If I had eaten the sin offering today, would YHWH have approved?” And when Moses heard that, he approved."
Clean and Unclean Animals
Leviticus 11:1-47, "And YHWH spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying to them, “Speak to the people of Israel, saying, These are the living things that you may eat among all the animals that are on the earth. Whatever parts the hoof and is cloven-footed and chews the cud, among the animals, you may eat. Nevertheless, among those that chew the cud or part the hoof, you shall not eat these: The camel, because it chews the cud but does not part the hoof, is unclean to you. And the rock badger, because it chews the cud but does not part the hoof, is unclean to you. And the hare, because it chews the cud but does not part the hoof, is unclean to you. And the pig, because it parts the hoof and is cloven-footed but does not chew the cud, is unclean to you. You shall not eat any of their flesh, and you shall not touch their carcasses; they are unclean to you."
“These you may eat, of all that are in the waters. Everything in the waters that has fins and scales, whether in the seas or in the rivers, you may eat. But anything in the seas or the rivers that does not have fins and scales, of the swarming creatures in the waters and of the living creatures that are in the waters, is detestable to you. You shall regard them as detestable; you shall not eat any of their flesh, and you shall detest their carcasses. Everything in the waters that does not have fins and scales is detestable to you."
“And these you shall detest among the birds; they shall not be eaten; they are detestable: the eagle, the bearded vulture, the black vulture, the kite, the falcon of any kind, every raven of any kind, the ostrich, the nighthawk, the sea gull, the hawk of any kind, the little owl, the cormorant, the short-eared owl, the barn owl, the tawny owl, the carrion vulture, the stork, the heron of any kind, the hoopoe, and the bat. All winged insects that go on all fours are detestable to you. Yet among the winged insects that go on all fours you may eat those that have jointed legs above their feet, with which to hop on the ground. Of them you may eat: the locust of any kind, the bald locust of any kind, the cricket of any kind, and the grasshopper of any kind. But all other winged insects that have four feet are detestable to you."
“And by these you shall become unclean. Whoever touches their carcass shall be unclean until the evening, and whoever carries any part of their carcass shall wash his clothes and be unclean until the evening. Every animal that parts the hoof but is not cloven-footed or does not chew the cud is unclean to you. Everyone who touches them shall be unclean. And all that walk on their paws, among the animals that go on all fours, are unclean to you. Whoever touches their carcass shall be unclean until the evening, and he who carries their carcass shall wash his clothes and be unclean until the evening; they are unclean to you."
“And these are unclean to you among the swarming things that swarm on the ground: the mole rat, the mouse, the great lizard of any kind, the gecko, the monitor lizard, the lizard, the sand lizard, and the chameleon. These are unclean to you among all that swarm. Whoever touches them when they are dead shall be unclean until the evening. And anything on which any of them falls when they are dead shall be unclean, whether it is an article of wood or a garment or a skin or a sack, any article that is used for any purpose. It must be put into water, and it shall be unclean until the evening; then it shall be clean. And if any of them falls into any earthenware vessel, all that is in it shall be unclean, and you shall break it. Any food in it that could be eaten, on which water comes, shall be unclean. And all drink that could be drunk from every such vessel shall be unclean. And everything on which any part of their carcass falls shall be unclean. Whether oven or stove, it shall be broken in pieces. They are unclean and shall remain unclean for you. Nevertheless, a spring or a cistern holding water shall be clean, but whoever touches a carcass in them shall be unclean. And if any part of their carcass falls upon any seed grain that is to be sown, it is clean, but if water is put on the seed and any part of their carcass falls on it, it is unclean to you."
“And if any animal which you may eat dies, whoever touches its carcass shall be unclean until the evening, and whoever eats of its carcass shall wash his clothes and be unclean until the evening. And whoever carries the carcass shall wash his clothes and be unclean until the evening.
“Every swarming thing that swarms on the ground is detestable; it shall not be eaten. Whatever goes on its belly, and whatever goes on all fours, or whatever has many feet, any swarming thing that swarms on the ground, you shall not eat, for they are detestable. You shall not make yourselves detestable with any swarming thing that swarms, and you shall not defile yourselves with them, and become unclean through them. For I am YHWH your Elohim. Consecrate yourselves therefore, and be holy, for I am holy. You shall not defile yourselves with any swarming thing that crawls on the ground. For I am YHWH who brought you up out of the land of Egypt to be your Elohim. You shall therefore be holy, for I am holy.” This is the law about beast and bird and every living creature that moves through the waters and every creature that swarms on the ground, to make a distinction between the unclean and the clean and between the living creature that may be eaten and the living creature that may not be eaten."
- Leviticus 10:1 Or strange
- Leviticus 11:13 Or things that fly; compare Genesis 1:20
- Leviticus 11:13 The identity of many of these birds is uncertain
Haftarah (Prophets and Writings)
The Ark Brought to Jerusalem
2 Samuel 6:1 – 7:17, "David again gathered all the chosen men of Israel, thirty thousand. And David arose and went with all the people who were with him from Baale-judah to bring up from there the ark of Elohim, which is called by the name of YHWH of hosts who sits enthroned on the cherubim. And they carried the ark of Elohim on a new cart and brought it out of the house of Abinadab, which was on the hill. And Uzzah and Ahio, the sons of Abinadab, were driving the new cart, with the ark of Elohim, and Ahio went before the ark."
Uzzah and the Ark
"And David and all the house of Israel were celebrating before YHWH, with songs and lyres and harps and tambourines and castanets and cymbals. And when they came to the threshing floor of Nacon, Uzzah put out his hand to the ark of Elohim and took hold of it, for the oxen stumbled. And the anger of YHWH was kindled against Uzzah, and Elohim struck him down there because of his error, and he died there beside the ark of Elohim. And David was angry because YHWH had broken out against Uzzah. And that place is called Perez-uzzah to this day. And David was afraid of YHWH that day, and he said, “How can the ark of YHWH come to me?” So David was not willing to take the ark of YHWH into the city of David. But David took it aside to the house of Obed-edom the Gittite. And the ark of YHWH remained in the house of Obed-edom the Gittite three months, and YHWH blessed Obed-edom and all his household."
"And it was told King David, “YHWH has blessed the household of Obed-edom and all that belongs to him, because of the ark of Elohim.” So David went and brought up the ark of Elohim from the house of Obed-edom to the city of David with rejoicing. And when those who bore the ark of YHWH had gone six steps, he sacrificed an ox and a fattened animal. And David danced before YHWH with all his might. And David was wearing a linen ephod. So David and all the house of Israel brought up the ark of YHWH with shouting and with the sound of the horn."
David and Michal
"As the ark of YHWH came into the city of David, Michal the daughter of Saul looked out of the window and saw King David leaping and dancing before YHWH, and she despised him in her heart. And they brought in the ark of YHWH and set it in its place, inside the tent that David had pitched for it. And David offered burnt offerings and peace offerings before YHWH. And when David had finished offering the burnt offerings and the peace offerings, he blessed the people in the name of YHWH of hosts and distributed among all the people, the whole multitude of Israel, both men and women, a cake of bread, a portion of meat, and a cake of raisins to each one. Then all the people departed, each to his house."
"And David returned to bless his household. But Michal the daughter of Saul came out to meet David and said, “How the king of Israel honored himself today, uncovering himself today before the eyes of his servants’ female servants, as one of the vulgar fellows shamelessly uncovers himself!” And David said to Michal, “It was before YHWH, who chose me above your father and above all his house, to appoint me as prince over Israel, the people of YHWH—and I will celebrate before YHWH. I will make myself yet more contemptible than this, and I will be abased in your eyes. But by the female servants of whom you have spoken, by them I shall be held in honor.” And Michal the daughter of Saul had no child to the day of her death."
YHWH’s Covenant with David
"Now when the king lived in his house and YHWH had given him rest from all his surrounding enemies, the king said to Nathan the prophet, “See now, I dwell in a house of cedar, but the ark of Elohim dwells in a tent.” And Nathan said to the king, “Go, do all that is in your heart, for YHWH is with you.”
But that same night the word of YHWH came to Nathan, “Go and tell my servant David, ‘Thus says YHWH: Would you build me a house to dwell in? I have not lived in a house since the day I brought up the people of Israel from Egypt to this day, but I have been moving about in a tent for my dwelling. In all places where I have moved with all the people of Israel, did I speak a word with any of the judges of Israel, whom I commanded to shepherd my people Israel, saying, “Why have you not built me a house of cedar?”’ Now, therefore, thus you shall say to my servant David, ‘Thus says YHWH of hosts, I took you from the pasture, from following the sheep, that you should be prince over my people Israel. And I have been with you wherever you went and have cut off all your enemies from before you. And I will make for you a great name, like the name of the great ones of the earth. And I will appoint a place for my people Israel and will plant them, so that they may dwell in their own place and be disturbed no more. And violent men shall afflict them no more, as formerly, from the time that I appointed judges over my people Israel. And I will give you rest from all your enemies. Moreover, YHWH declares to you that YHWH will make you a house. When your days are fulfilled and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring after you, who shall come from your body, and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build a house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son. When he commits iniquity, I will discipline him with the rod of men, with the stripes of the sons of men, but my steadfast love will not depart from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I put away from before you. And your house and your kingdom shall be made sure forever before me. Your throne shall be established forever.’” In accordance with all these words, and in accordance with all this vision, Nathan spoke to David."
- 2 Samuel 6:3 Or and his brother; also verse 4
- 2 Samuel 6:3 Compare Septuagint; Hebrew the new cart, and brought it out of the house of Abinadab, which was on the hill
- 2 Samuel 6:5 Septuagint, 1 Chronicles 13:8; Hebrew fir trees
- 2 Samuel 6:8 Perez-uzzah means the breaking out against Uzzah
- 2 Samuel 6:19 Vulgate; the meaning of the Hebrew term is uncertain
- 2 Samuel 6:21 Or leader
- 2 Samuel 6:22 Septuagint; Hebrew my
- 2 Samuel 7:7 Compare 1 Chronicles 17:6; Hebrew tribes
- 2 Samuel 7:8 Or leader
- 2 Samuel 7:16 Septuagint; Hebrew you
Brit Hadashah (New Covenant)
Paul Opposes Peter
Galatians 2:11-16, "But when Cephas came to Antioch, I opposed him to his face, because he stood condemned. For before certain men came from James, he was eating with the Gentiles; but when they came he drew back and separated himself, fearing the circumcision party. And the rest of the Jews acted hypocritically along with him, so that even Barnabas was led astray by their hypocrisy. For when I saw that their conduct was not in step with the truth of the gospel, I said to Cephas before them all, “If you, though a Jew, live like a Gentile and not like a Jew, how can you force the Gentiles to live like Jews?”
Justified by Faith
"We ourselves are Jews by birth and not Gentile sinners; yet we know that a person is not justified by works of the law but through faith in Yeshua HaMashiach, so we also have believed in Yeshua HaMashiach, in order to be justified by faith in HaMashiach and not by works of the law, because by works of the law no one will be justified."
- Galatians 2:12 Or fearing those of the circumcision
- Galatians 2:16 Or counted righteous (three times in verse 16); also verse 17
1 Peter 1:13-16, "Therefore, preparing your minds for action, and being sober-minded, set your hope fully on the grace that will be brought to you at the revelation of Yeshua HaMashiach. As obedient children, do not be conformed to the passions of your former ignorance, but as he who called you is holy, you also be holy in all your conduct, since it is written,“You shall be holy, for I am holy.”